Cancer screening can help detect certain types of cancer early on in people who have not yet shown symptoms. In this case, tumors can be managed with non-surgical or conservative treatment.
Decisions on screening studies should be based on the presence of these risk factors. However, the number of tests largely relies on the main ones - gender and age.
Breast cancer screening is usually performed through a mammogram (once every 2-3 years) for women 50-70 years of age. If mammogram results look suspicious, doctor may recommend a biopsy to test the tissue.
Mammography is a type of diagnostic test that consists of x-ray images of breast tissue captured in two projections using a special mammography machine. Mammography is able to detect very small tumors. Suspicious areas are often seen as opaque shadows.
Breast MRIs are typically recommended for women at higher risk of developing breast cancer. This method of diagnosing breast cancer is used together with mammography.
Breast exams are not recommended for those under age 50, especially if a woman does not have a hereditary pathogenic mutation that predisposes her to breast cancer (the presence of early-onset breast and ovarian cancer in several blood relatives). This is due to the fact that tumors are rare at this age, and the mammary gland has a structure that makes it difficult to detect cancer.
According to the USPSTF, women between the ages of 50 and 74 should have a mammogram every two years. However, patients age 50 or younger, women with a family history of breast cancer or breast lumps discovered during self-examination should talk with their doctors to determine the frequency of screenings.
The main purpose of this study is the early detection of precancerous lesions in the cervix. These conditions precede oncology and can be successfully treated. Besides, screening can detect cancer at an early stage.
Cervical Cancer Screening Tests Include:
Colon cancer screening is aimed at the early detection of the disease or benign formations (polyps) that have not yet developed into cancer. The colon is a common site of cancer development that requires regular screening tests, even in the absence of symptoms.
This process is used to detect tumors in the lungs before they become large and potentially life-threatening.
Any person who meets at least one of the above criteria should undergo preventive examinations once a year. Smoking causes around 8 out of every 10 cases of lung cancer. Second-hand smoke has also been confirmed as a cause of lung cancer. It is responsible for 1 in 5 cases of the disease. All other causes account for 20% of the total number of lung cancer patients.
A CT scan provides a series of detailed images of the chest as the CT scanner rotates around the body. A computer then combines the images to create three-dimensional pictures of the organs. The doctor examines them to detect the presence of growths in the lung (lung nodules) and other changes.
Screening for prostate cancer involves regularly measuring the levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the blood. This test is recommended for men between the ages of 50 and 75 years.
When the PSA level rises to a certain threshold (the traditional cutoff for abnormal level is 4 ng/ml), patients should undergo transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. During a biopsy, pieces of tissue are removed from the prostate to be examined under a microscope. The aim of a biopsy is to detect signs of prostate cancer.
Prostate cancer screening should not be performed in men younger than 40 years of age since the disease is rarely diagnosed in this age group. Men aged between 40 to 50 years also have a low risk of developing prostate cancer, except for those with an inherited predisposition. Therefore, screening should be done for men with a family history of prostate cancer.
Palpation of the prostate (via the rectum). Unfortunately, this simple method can only detect large tumors that are often not amenable to radical treatment.
PSA (Prostate-Specific Antigen) is a tumor marker for prostate cancer. PSA is a protein that is produced only by the prostate gland. Normally, healthy men have a small amount of PSA in their blood. However, larger amounts of PSA can be a sign of prostate cancer.